Handel w basenie Morza Śródziemnego pomiędzy VIII i VI wiekiem p.N.E., Ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem wysp Dodekanezu

Słowa kluczowe: okres archaiczny, Grecja, Rodos, Fenicjanie, handel, handel metalem, skarby srebra z epoki żelaza w Lewancie

Abstrakt

Wzrost potęgi Asyrii w pierwszym tysiącleciu p.n.e. spowodował nasilenie roszczeń trybutowych względem miast lewantyńskich, jednocześnie wzbudzając potrzebę intensyfikacji i rozszerzania poszukiwań cennych metali. Asyryjska presja militarna i ekonomiczna zmobilizowała Fenicjan do rozszerzenia swojej strefy handlowej na skalę ponadregionalną, a sami Fenicjanie stali się dostarczycielami podstawowych surowców dla rozległego imperium. Jest to widoczne także w Dodekanezie. W ramach zaistniałej sieci kontaktów i powiązań między Egeą a Bliskim Wschodem, Rodos i Kos odgrywało znaczącą rolę, o czym dobitnie świadczą znajdowane artefakty szczególnie w późnym VIII i VII wieku p.n.e. Z uwagi na szczególne położenie geograficzne, wyspa zyskała rolę pośrednika i przystanku w handlu biegnącym ze wschodniej części basenu Morza Śródziemnego na Cypr i do Grecji kontynentalnej. Przedmioty dedykowane w słynnych sanktuariach w Ialysos, Kameiros i Lindos poświadczają dalekie głównie bliskowschodnie kontakty. W tym kontekście pojawiają się skarby gromadzone na terenie południowego Lewantu, między X a VI wiekiem p.n.e. Zawierały one w różnych proporcjach sztabki srebra, bryłki srebra i drobną biżuterię srebrną, srebro zaś pochodziło przede wszystkim z obszarów Grecji (głownie Laurion), południowej Anatolii i źródeł iberyjskich.

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2019-12-30
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