Reshoring as a way to reduce imbalances in global supply chains
Keywords:relocation, offshoring, COVID-19 pandemic.
Backgrounds: The notion that the world has become flat and national borders are irrelevant for production and supply, which was popularized during the peak of globalization, is outdated. This is implied by the events we are currently experiencing (e.g., trade wars, military operations in Ukraine, the COVID-19 pandemic). Increasingly, it can be seen that the perspective of globalization remains undefined mainly due to the disruptions and problems experienced by global supply chains, which are currently an impulse to redefine the strategies implemented by companies related to, inter alia, the relocation of activities, mainly production. The question arises as to whether reshoring and related investments are gaining strength, and which countries can count on the return of native corporations.
Research purpose: The article presents the phenomenon of reshoring and tries to ascertain whether the disruptions that exert pressure on global supply chains imply its development.
Methods: The research methods used include a review and analysis of the available literature and background data from reports, as well as information obtained from the author’s own research conducted among managers of foreign capital companies operating in Poland, using the in-depth interview tool.
Conclusions: What we can expect as part of the activities undertaken by enterprises is the diversification of component/product sources from local/national markets (reshoring) or neighboring countries (nearshoring) located closer to the production plants. The analysis of the data and considerations concerning the relocation of economic activities as part of reshoring shows that corporations from the United States (83% of the surveyed companies) are most interested in reshoring. By contrast, those from European countries consider or implement nearshoring. Asia, China in particular, accounts for the largest number of reshoring projects.
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